What your Urine Colour, Odor or Volume Indicates About Your Body?

Normal Urine Characteristics:
  • Color: Ranges from pale yellow to deep amber, influenced by hydration levels.
  • A very well-hydrated person will have clear urine color, while a dark golden color can be due to dehydration.
  • Normal urine is often a pale yellow color due to urochrome, a pigment produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin.
Abnormal Colors:
  • Red:
    • Presence of Red Blood cells or Hemoglobin.
    • Or if the person is consuming red-pigmented food like Beet Root.
    • Hematuria: Presence of RBCs.
      • Causes: Kidney and other urinary tract infections or stones, kidney inflammation or injury, prostate problems.
    • Hemoglobinuria: Presence of hemoglobin in urine.
      • Causes: Malaria, typhoid, yellow fever, or hemolytic jaundice.
  • White or Milky:
    • Also known as chyluria, indicates the presence of lymph in urine.
    • Most commonly associated with the parasitic infection Wuchereria Bancrofti, but can also have non-infectious causes.
    • Causes: Trauma, congenital lymphatic malformation (e.g., lymphatic-urinary fistula), post-surgery (e.g., nephrectomy), congenital stenosis of thoracic duct.
  • Dark Brown or Black:
    • Alkaptonuria, or black urine disease.
urine colour
  • Clarity: Normally clear.
    • Cloudiness might indicate the presence of mucus, cells, or microbes as in UTIs.
    • Foamy: Excessive bubbles might indicate protein in the urine, a potential sign of kidney disease.
  • Odor: Mild odor due to ammonia.
    • In conditions like liver disease, it may smell musty.
    • Foul smell indicates bladder infection.
    • Mousy smell in the case of Phenylketonuria.
    • Sweet smell in the case of diabetes mellitus.
    • Another genetic disorder makes it smell like maple syrup.
  • Volume: About 800 to 2,000 milliliters per day for adults, varying with fluid intake.
    • Polyuria: Urinary volume >2000ml/24 hrs.
      • Causes: Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, chronic renal failure, and diuretic therapy.
    • Oliguria: Urinary volume <400ml/24 hrs.
      • Causes: Febrile states, acute glomerulonephritis, congestive cardiac failure, or dehydration.
    • Anuria: Urinary output <100ml/24 hrs or complete cessation of urine output.
      • Causes: Acute tubular necrosis, acute glomerulonephritis, and complete urinary tract obstruction.
  • pH: Usually slightly acidic, ranging from 5.6 to 7.
    • Acidic urine:
      • Causes: Large intake of meat & certain fruits (cranberries), metabolic & respiratory acidosis.
    • Alkaline urine:
      • Causes: Vegetarians, metabolic & respiratory alkalosis, urinary tract infection by urea-splitting bacteria which split urea to ammonia (alkaline).

Also Read : Navigating Necrosis : Investigating its Cause, Classification, Consequences & Treatment
Also Read : WHO updates policy for the use of lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) for diagnosing active tuberculosis in people living with HIV

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